E-ISSN 2602-4837
The Turkish Journal of Ear Nose and Throat - Tr-ENT: 30 (3)
Volume: 30  Issue: 3 - 2020
1.Cover

Pages I - III

2.Editorial

Page IV

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
3.Diagnosis and management of congenital vallecular cyst: An institutional experience
Serap Şahin Önder, Gözde Günay, Aslı Şahin Yılmaz, Özgül Gergin
doi: 10.5606/Tr-ENT.2020.18291  Pages 81 - 86
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of infants with a congenital vallecular cyst (VC).
METHODS: Four infants (2 males, 2 females; mean age: 45±17 days; range, 28 to 63 days) who were operated or followed for a congenital VC were retrospectively analyzed between January 2016 and March 2020. Data including patient demographics, major symptoms (cyanosis, inspiratory stridor, suprasternal retraction, difficulty feeding), diagnostic methods, type of coexisting anomalies, surgical procedures, and length of follow-up and recurrence were recorded.
RESULTS: All patients presented with varying degrees of respiratory symptoms including inspiratory stridor and suprasternal retraction. The diagnosis was made based on awake flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) in all four infants. Two patients were treated with endoscopic cyst excision. One case underwent endoscopic cyst excision and supraglottoplasty, while the other was followed without surgery. All surgeries were successful, as none of the patients experienced recurrence.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although congenital VCs are extremely rare, they should be considered among the differential diagnosis of congenital stridor. A detailed examination with FFL should be performed for diagnosis. Based on our findings, transoral endoscopic excision of VCs is a safe, effective, and feasible procedure as a surgical treatment to prevent recurrence.

4.Vocal fatigue in teachers and non-teachers in a Turkish population
Necati Enver, Akın Şahin, Aylin Torğul, Mehmet Sürmeli, Cağatay Oysu
doi: 10.5606/Tr-ENT.2020.42714  Pages 87 - 91
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the voice use and associated vocal fatigue in teachers and to define their differences with other professional voice users and non-vocal non-professionals.
METHODS: Between May 2020 and October 2020, a total of 187 participants (41 males, 146 females; mean age: 32.6±10.5 years; range, 23 to 65 years) were administered the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI) questionnaire. Of the participants, 93 were teachers and 94 were non-teachers recruited from Istanbul province of Turkey. The relationship between the VFI and sociodemographic characteristics, professional activity, talkativeness, duration of active vocal use, and active vocal complaints were analyzed.
RESULTS: The mean VFI score was 35.5±16.2. Those with a vocal complaint had significantly higher mean total VFI scores than those without any vocal complaints (p<0.001). Duration of voice use and total VFI scores were significantly higher in teachers than other professions (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The mean total VFI scores of teachers with or without vocal complaints did not significantly differ (p=0.065).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that voice disorders are more common among teachers, compared to non-professional voice users. It is important to reveal the etiology of voice problems in teachers, particularly for early diagnosis and immediate treatment.

5.Changes in internet search behaviors related to smell and taste disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey
Erdal Sakallı, Dastan Temirbekov, Mehran Mahouti, Mustafa Caner Kesimli, Deniz Kaya
doi: 10.5606/Tr-ENT.2020.61587  Pages 92 - 98
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to assess the change in internet searches terms related to smell and taste disorders (STDs) during the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and to investigate the relationship between the changes and the daily number of COVID-19 cases and deaths reported in Turkey.
METHODS: Between March 1st, 2019 and April 30th, 2020, the average number of internet searches of the most common 10 key terms related to STDs during the COVID-19 outbreak was compared to the average number of internet searches of those terms in previous months in Turkey. The daily average number of most common 10 key terms based on Google AdWords (GA) and the relative search volume (RSV) of most searched two terms (“inability to smell” and “inability to taste”) related to STDs based on Google trends (GT) were compared with the change in the daily number of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Turkey.
RESULTS: The average number of internet searches of 10 key terms between March and April 2020 increased approximately six times from both the average number of the same terms in the previous 10 months and between March and April 2019 months period (p<0.001). We identified a strong correlation between the daily numerical changes of key terms and the increase in the number of daily COVID-19 cases and deaths (r=0.810 and r=0.783, respectively; p<0.001). There was a strong correlation between the RSV surges of two terms (“inability to smell” and “inability to taste”) and the increase in the daily number of cases and deaths during the outbreak in Turkey (p<0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 in Turkey led to an increase in internet searches terms related to STDs. This increase was strongly correlated with the increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths in Turkey.

6.A comparison of different treatment modalities used as otorrhea prophylaxis following ventilation tube placement
Mehmet Metin, Mustafa Avcu, Harun Soyalıç, Arzu Tuzuner
doi: 10.5606/Tr-ENT.2020.97269  Pages 99 - 107
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to compare the efficacy and complications of different medical treatment modalities used to prevent otorrhea following ventilation tube placement.
METHODS: This single-center, evaluator-blinded, controlled study included a total of 241 consecutive children (137 males, 104 females; mean age: 7.3±2.6 years; range, 3 to 13 years) who underwent bilateral ventilation tube placement due to bilateral serous otitis media between July 2014 and June 2016. The patients were classified according to the medical treatment protocols applied. Group 1 (n=56) received oral antibiotics; Group 2 (n=57) received oral antibiotics + local antibiotic ear drops; Group 3 (n=65) received local antibiotic ear drops; and Group 4 (n=63) received local antibiotic-glucocorticoid ear drops.
RESULTS: The lowest rate of otorrhea seen was 5.2% in Group 2, followed by 6.34% in Group 4. The highest rate of otorrhea was seen in Group 1. In the evaluation of the efficacy of the treatments, otorrhea was eliminated in Group 2 at a rate of 75% on Day 4. The same success rate was reached on Day 6 in Group 4 and on Day 12 in the other groups. The highest rate (28%) of side effects was seen in Group 2. Although the rates in the groups applied with local treatments were lower than those of the other groups, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.051).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The administration of local antibiotic-glucocorticoid ear drops can be considered an effective and safe treatment option with similar otorrhea and lower complication rates.

CASE REPORTS
7.Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil: A rare case report
Barani Karikalan, Thanikachalam Pasupati, Sophia Merilyn George
doi: 10.5606/Tr-ENT.2020.81905  Pages 108 - 111
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an unusual aggressive type of squamous cell carcinoma with a preference toward the head and neck area with the upper aerodigestive tract being more frequent than other sites. It contains both squamous and basaloid elements intricately woven to each other. Its origin is believed to be from multipotent cells located at the base of the squamous epithelium or salivary ductal lining. Distant spread to cervical lymph nodes and lungs is frequent and is one of the determinants of survival. Adenoid cystic carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma are among the differentials and can be differentiated from BSCC by histological features and immunohistochemical features, respectively. Herein, we present an unusual case of BSCC in a 38-year-old man and discuss its differentials to emphasis on the importance of early diagnosis due to its aggressive nature.

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